MOST150 enables the use of a higher bandwidth of 150 Mbps, an isochronous transport mechanism to support extensive video applications, and an embedded Ethernet channel for efficient transport of IP-based packet data. It succeeds in providing significant speed enhancements and breakthroughs while keeping In-Vehicle computers to costs down.
It succeeds in providing significant speed enhancements and breakthroughs while keeping costs down. The new Intelligent Network Interface Controller (INIC) architecture complies with Specification Rev. 3.0 and expands the audio/video capability for next generation automotive infotainment devices such as Head Units, Rear Seat Entertainment, Amplifiers, TV-Tuners and Video Displays.
The 4th generation Intel® Core™ processors serve the embedded computing space with a new microarchitecture which Kontron will implement on a broad range of embedded computing platforms. Beside a 15% increased CPU performance especially the graphics has improved by its doubled performance in comparison to solutions based on the previous generation processors. At the same embedded computing , the thermal footprint has remained practically the same or has even shrunk.
Based on the 22 nm Intel® 3D processor technology already used in the predecessor generation, the processors, formerly codenamed ‘Haswell’, have experienced a performance increase which will doubtlessly benefit applications.
With improved processing and graphics performance as well as energy efficiency and broad scalability, the 4th generation Intel® Core™ processors with its new microarchitecture provide an attractive solution for a broad array of mid-range to high-end embedded applications in target markets such as medical, embedded computing, industrial automation, infotainment and military.
However, once the first bank became a victim, immediately all the other institutions started to learn more about the attacks, search for solutions, then deploy those solutions quickly. When I look at military cloud security solutions, there are many vendors and partners providing tools and solutions, but not many providing availability security embedded computer attacks are hurting the availability of online services and many antivirus vendors and firewall vendors do not focus on the availability aspect.” Cloud providers find protecting the shared infrastructure can be challenging because it is an expensive up-front cost, he continues.
Virtualization trends in commercial computing offer benefits for cost, reliability, and security, but pose a challenge for military operators who need to visualize lossless imagery in real time. 10 GbE technology enables a standard zero client solution for viewing pixel-perfect C4ISR sensor and graphics information with near zero interactive latency. For C4ISR systems, ready access to and sharing of visual information at any operator position can increase situational awareness and mission effectiveness. Operators utilize multiple information sources including computers and camera feeds, as well as high-fidelity radar and sonar imagery. Deterministic real-time interaction with remote computers and sensors is required to shorten decision loops and enable rapid actions.
A new All-in-OneGaming Board, the AMB-A55EG1. AMB-A55EG1 features AMD Embedded G-Series T56N 1.65GHz dual-core APU, two DDR3-1333 SO-DIMM, which provides great computing and graphic performance is suitable for casino gaming and amusement applications. It is designed to comply with the most gaming regulations including GLI, BMM, and Comma 6A. AMB-A55EG1 is specifically designed to be a cost competitive solution for the entry-level gaming market.
AMB-A55EG1 utilizes the functions of an X86 platform, 72-pin Gaming I/O interface, intrusion detection and also various security options, and a complete line of Application Programming Interfaces to create smoother gaming development.
● 256KB battery back-up SRAM with battery low monitor
● 2 ccTalk ports
● 1 Gigabit Ethernet port
● 6 USB ports
● 2 SATA ports + 1 mSATA port
● 2 Intrusion Detection door switches
● Hardware security by FPGA + PIC
● 5.1 channels with 2 channel amplifier (6W x 2)
acrosser AMB-A55EG1 is powered by AMD low power G-Series T56N dual core platform that uses an AMD Radeon HD 6320 graphic controller. The DirectX® 11 support lets you enjoy awesome graphics performance, stunning 3D visual effects and dynamic interactivity. Discrete-level GPU with OpenGL 4.0 and OpenCL™ 1.1 support device provides the tools to build the designs of tomorrow, today.
In conclusion, AMB-A55EG1 bridges Acrosser’s innovated gaming solutions and AMD Embedded G-Series APU to bring the optimum combination of computing power, graphic performance, and gaming features. Acrosser supports all gaming products in Windows XP Pro, XP embedded and mainstream Linux operation system with complete software development kit (SDK). In addition, Acrosser’s gaming platforms have a minimum 5-year availability to fulfill the demand of long term supply in gaming industry.
For more information on AMB-A55EG1 or any other products, please contact your local Acrosser sales channel or logon to our website: www.acrosser.com
In vehicle computer, single board computer, Industrial PC
For the critical embedded computer industry, electronics reliability is not merely a desirable attribute – it’s a definite must-have. Consequently, VITA’s 51.0 and related reliability prediction standards, in addition to its Embedded Computer, aim to develop standards and guidelines to make reliability prediction more manageable.
Computer reliability has been near the top of the list of concerns for system developers since the dawn of the computer. The level of reliability has increased multifold over the years, making embedded computer reliable enough for even the most critical applications.
In vehicle computer, single board computer, Industrial PC
Mobile Battery life
Mobile computing has always required a balance of embedded performance and power consumption. The combination of smaller form factors and consumers demanding more out of their devices has led chip designers to develop ways around the power/performance gap. Without cutting power altogether, designers turn to techniques like clock scaling, where embedded processor speeds vary based on the intensity of a task. Designers have also reverted to dual- and quad-core processors that decrease power while still delivering performance. As consumers continue to trend toward an “always on, always connected” experience, processors must become more powerful and more energy efficient.
The way consumers use computing devices is drastically changing, as their primary computing devices are no longer stationary, but carried paltform around in their pockets, bags, and purses. The number of mobile connected devices will exceed the world’s population in 2012, according to industry studies. By 2016 there will be more than 10 billion mobile Internet connections around the world, with 8 billion of them being personal devices and 2 billion Machine-to-Machine (M2M) connections.
IT managers are under increasing pressure to boost network capacity and performance to cope with the data deluge. Networking systems are under a similar form of stress with their performance degrading as new capabilities are added in software. The solution to both needs is next-generation System-on-Chip (SoC) communications processors that combine multiple cores with multiple hardware acceleration engines.
The speed of innovation in automotive IVI is making a lot of heads turn. No question, Linux OS and Android are the engines for change.
The open source software movement has forever transformed the mobiledevicelandscape. Consumers are able to do things today that 10 years ago were unimaginable. Just when smartphone and tablet users are comfortable using their devices in their daily lives, another industry is about to be transformed. The technology enabled by open source in this industry might be even more impressive than what we’ve just experienced in the smartphone industry.
The industry isautomotive, and already open source software has made significant inroads in how both driver and passenger interact within theautomobile. Open source stalwartsLinuxand Google are making significant contributions not only in the user/driver experience, but also insafety-criticaloperations,vehicle-to-vehicle communications, and automobile-to-cloudinteractions.
Initially, automotive OEMs turned to open source to keep costs down and open up the supply chain. In the past, Tier 1 suppliers and developers of In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) systems would treat an infotainment center as a “black box,” comprised mostly of proprietary software componentsand dedicated hardware. The OEM was not allowed to probe inside, and had no ability to “mix and match” thecomponentparts. The results were sometimes subquality systems in which the automotive OEM had no say, and no ability to maintain. With the advent of open source, developers are now not only empowered to cut software development costs, but they also have control of the IVI system they want to design for a specified niche. Open source software, primarily Linux and to some extentAndroid, comprises open and “free” software operating platforms or systems. What makes Linux so special are the many communities of dedicated developers around the world constantly updating the Linux kernel. While there are many Linux versions, owned by a range of open source communities and commercial organizations, Android is owned and managed exclusively by Google.
To understand the automotive IVI space, it’s best to look at the technology enabled by Linux and what Android’s done to further advance automotive multimedia technology.
Linux OS – untapped potential at every turn
There are many standards bodies and groups involved in establishing Linux in the automobile – not just in IVI, but in navigation, telematics, safety-critical functions, and more. The Linux Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the growth of Linux, recently announced the Automotive Grade Linux (AGL) workgroup. The AGL workgroup facilitates widespread industry collaboration that advances automotive device development by providing a community reference platform that companies can use for creating products. Jaguar Land Rover, Nissan, and Toyota are among the first carmakers to participate in the AGL workgroup.
Another Linux initiative, the GENIVI Alliance, was established to promote the widespread adoption of open source in IVI. The goal behind GENIVI is to allow collaboration among automakers and their suppliers across a single unified ecosystem, to streamline development, and keep costs down. The organization has flourished since its formation in 2009, and today it has more than 165 members. The GENIVI base platform (Mentor Embedded is compliant with version 3.0) accommodates a wide range of open source building blocks demanded by today’s developers.
Linux has further opened up the possibilities with safety-critical operations and multimedia communications. Hardware companies have followed suit with more IVI functions built onto a single piece of silicon, improvingsecurityand performance.
The available power ofmulticoreSoChardware hosting a Linuxoperating systemis fueling rapid expansion in vehicle software in the area of telematics. In Europe, for example, by 2015, all newcarsmust be equipped with the eCall system, to automatically alert emergency services in the event of a collision. Services such as insurance tracking, stolen vehicle notification, real-time cloud data (traffic, weather, road conditions ahead), car-to-car communication, driverless car, diagnostics, and servicing are also made available via in-car Internet services. To operate in this space, IVI hardware needs to have multicore processor support, GPU/high-performance graphics with multiple video outputs, Internet connectivity, and compatibility with existing in-car networks such asCAN, MOST, and AVB. Several components are already on the market, and the future potential is exciting.
Consolidating multiple functions into a single Linux-based Electronic Control Unit (ECU) allows for a reduction in component count, thereby reducing overall vehicle costs. Maintenance becomes easier. And the wire harness costs are reduced as the total ECU count drops. As Linux becomes more widespread in vehicles, additional technologies will consolidate – for example, instrument clusters and AUTOSAR-based ECUs may coexist with infotainment stacks. It’s also important to realize that the complexity of software and the amount of software code used will only increase as these new technologies become standard. Already more than 100 million lines of code are used in the infotainment system of the S-Class Mercedes-Benz and according to Linuxinsider.com, and that number is projected to triple by 2015 (Figure 1).
Figure 1:Software complexity in IVI systems continues to grow. Today, the IVI system of an S-Class Mercedes has 100m lines of code. By 2015, it is expected to be 300m. A Linux-based solution, capable of scaling to handle the complexity, is mandatory.
Android apps hit the road
The Android operating system, on the other hand, was designed from the start to support mobile devices and has proved that it can serve more than mobile phones. Using the Android OS for in-vehicle entertainment provides all the entertainment features offered by a top-of-the-range, in-dash infotainment system with the addition of informative, driver-assisting content including hands-free calling, multimedia center, and a navigation system/Google maps. For an open source expandable system (whereby the framework can be extended and applications can be developed for it), the Android OS can be enhanced to support multiple audio and video feeds. For example, IVI audio requirements include music, phone calls, sensor warnings, and navigation announcements, which must be managed and prioritized. Managing multiple displays, with an information-focus for the driver and entertainment-focus for passengers, is also a requirement. The UI for the driver should be arranged to minimize distraction, while passengers will want as much content as possible from their UIs. But many automotive OEMs and developers ask, “Why not just use the Android smartphone and tie it into a vehicle’s dash?” Not only would this be more cost effective for the developer, but the user would have instant familiarity with the system.
One organization promoting the use of the smartphone as an IVI in-dash system is the Car Connectivity Consortium (CCC). The CCC provides standards and recipe books for tethering a smartphone to the infotainment head unit. The CCC members implement MirrorLink (Figure 2), a technology standard for controlling a nearby smartphone from thein-car infotainment system screen or via dashboard buttons and controls. This allows familiar smartphone-hosted applications and functions to be easily accessed. CCC members include more than 80 percent of the world’s automakers, and more than 70 percent of global smartphone manufacturers. The MirrorLink technology is compatible with Mentor Embedded’s GENIVI 3.0 specification Linux base platform solution.
Figure 2:An example of smartphone in-dash tethering:Driversuse the same smartphone apps in the vehicle as they do on their own smartphone, which provides a great deal of familiarity.
A recent example of smartphone tethering can be found in certain subcompactmodelsfrom U.S. auto manufacturer General Motors. Select Chevrolet models carry the “MyLink” in-dash infotainment system.
Linux and Android driving together?
Despite the strengths of and differences between these two popular platforms, recent embedded architecture developments now allow the Linux and Androidoperating systemsto happily coexist. And this might be a very good thing. For example, Android can be hosted on top of Linux using Linux Container Architecture (LXC) (Figure 3). The resources, access control, and security of the Android client are managed by the host Linux operating system. For system designers concerned about the security of Android, this represents a good way to offer Android app access, and keep other system functions on a standard Linux platform. MulticoreSystem-on-Chip(SoC) platforms make this architecture even more attractive, as there are sufficient resources for both Linux and Android domains to perform well simultaneously. The CPU resources can be shared, along with memory,graphics processingresources, and other peripherals. The output of the two domains can be recombined into a common Human Machine Interface (HMI) allowing the user to select functions from both domains.
Figure 3:There are several ways to include Android (Android apps) in a Linux-based IVI solution. One method, which is becoming increasingly more popular, is using Linux Container Architecture. Here, Android sits as a guest OS on top of the Linux kernel. Privileges and permissions are tightly controlled.
Exciting times ahead
Both Linux and Android are extremely versatile and powerful operating systems worthy of consideration in IVI systems. We are still in the infancy stages in what these two open source platforms can do for IVI. Now is the perfect time to starting developing or to join a consortium so that you too can reap the fruits of what IVI promises down the road.
Intel Celeron family is a line of budget x86 processors based on Pentium designs. Originally based on Intel Pentium II architecture, the Celeron processors migrated over time to Pentium III, NetBurst (Pentium 4) and Core architectures. Priced lower than their Pentium counterparts, the Celeron processors have certain high-end processor features disabled. For example, P6-based Celerons had multiprocessing disabled, while more modern CPUs may have disabled Hyper-Threading, Virtualization, AES instructions, and/or other features.
The Celerons are slower than similar-clocked Pentiums due to smaller size of L2 cache, and possibly slower bus speed. Celeron CPUs are usually packaged the same way as Pentium or Core-branded processors, and can be used in motherboards designed for Pentium/Core microprocessors.
For more information about the differences between Celeron and Pentium CPUs please see Celeron vs Pentium page.